Click the tabs below to access some useful data, conversion tables and downloads.

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Acidity (conversion tables)
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Content 3
Chemical data
Content 5
Periodic table

Periodic Table

If you require the full periodic table, click here to download an excellent interactive version, with plenty of useful information about the elements.


Sulphur dioxide (new EU limits)

There are new limits for total sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the EU:

Red wines: 150 mg/l for dry wines (or 200 mg/l if residual sugar is not less than 5 g/l).

White and rosé wines: 200 mg/l for dry wines (or 250 mg/l if residual sugar is not less than 5 g/l).

Different limits apply to sweet wines and sparkling wines. The full regulations are contained in Annex 1B of Commission Regulation (EC) 606/2009 which can be downloaded here.

Volatile acidity

Volatile acidity (VA) can be expressed in several different ways: as g/l sulphuric acid, acetic acid, tartaric acid, or in milliequivalents. In the USA, volatile acidity is expressed in terms of acetic acid but in g/100ml rather than g/l. Converting between these is easy, but remember to state which units you are using when you report your results!

  g/l sulphuric g/l acetic g/l tartaric mEq/l g/100ml acetic
1.00 g/l sulphuric 1.00 1.22 1.53 20.39 0.122
1.00 g/l acetic 0.82 1.00 1.26 16.65 0.100
1.00 g/l tartaric 0.65 0.80 1.00 13.32 0.080
1.00 mEq/l 0.049 0.060 0.075 1.00 0.006

For a full explanation and details of limits in different countries click here.